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Four Laws of Ecology: A Review and a timely reminder for the Bulusan Geothermal Project

Bulusan Lake

Bulusan Lake photo by pamughaton.net

Four Laws of Ecology

One of Commoner’s lasting legacies is his four laws of ecology, as written in The Closing Circle in 1971. The four laws are:

  1. Everything Is Connected to Everything Else. There is one ecosphere for all living organisms and what affects one, affects all.
  2. Everything Must Go Somewhere. There is no “waste” in nature and there is no “away” to which things can be thrown.
  3. Nature Knows Best. Humankind has fashioned technology to improve upon nature, but such change in a natural system is, says Commoner, “likely to be detrimental to that system.”
  4. There Is No Such Thing as a Free Lunch. Exploitation of nature will inevitably involve the conversion of resources from useful to useless forms.

Sources: Barry Commoner by Wikipedia. “The Closing Circle: Nature, Man, and Technology” by Barry Commoner, 1971.

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