Four Laws of Ecology
- Everything Is Connected to Everything Else. There is one ecosphere for all living organisms and what affects one, affects all.
- Everything Must Go Somewhere. There is no “waste” in nature and there is no “away” to which things can be thrown.
- Nature Knows Best. Humankind has fashioned technology to improve upon nature, but such change in a natural system is, says Commoner, “likely to be detrimental to that system.”
- There Is No Such Thing as a Free Lunch. Exploitation of nature will inevitably involve the conversion of resources from useful to useless forms.
Sources: Barry Commoner by Wikipedia. “The Closing Circle: Nature, Man, and Technology” by Barry Commoner, 1971.